A rainbow is a natural phenomenon that usually happens after it rains. It is made up of water droplets that are still in the air after it rains. Sunlight passes through the drops of the vital liquid (refraction), which causes the light waves to reflect and make a beautiful arc that shines in different colors and stands out against the gray clouds.
The intensity of this iridescent curve’s colors varies, but its basic colors are red, orange, yellow, cyan, green, blue, and violet, in that order. You can also enjoy seeing two rainbows at once.
Natural Phenomenon of Rainbow
Scientists say that a double rainbow is made when a ray of light passes through the middle of two water droplets. This causes the light to bend and reflect twice, but the colors are not as bright as in the first arch. Most of the time, the colors go from violet to blue to green to cyan to yellow to orange to red.
I’m interested in why the rainbow has seven colors. Isaac Newton, a physicist, was the one who said, to make it easier to understand, that the range of colors from weather events can be summed up in seven basic colors.
Isaac Newton’s idea was shot down by other experts in the field who pointed out that the bow has three colors. People are said to have three types of cones that help them see. These are blue, red, and green, which are the primary colors. They also make sure that when you mix the primary colors, you get secondary colors, which makes about six, not seven.
There are more than two kinds of rainbows, and each one has its own beauty that stuns and affects people. The types of these depend on the weather conditions that affect how the arc is seen. Some of these are:
Supernumerary rainbow: Sunlight usually bends in a way that makes three or four extra arcs appear. They start to have more shades of color, like pink and green.
Red rainbow: People like them in the morning and afternoon because the sun’s rays move faster and some colors are blocked, leaving only the waves that carry the red and yellow tones.
Circumhorizontal arc: Most of the time, they look like separate clouds that are sharp or stringy and have ice crystals that, when hit by sunlight, form a prism.
White rainbow: For light to pass through these tiny fog droplets, which are 100 times smaller than normal raindrops, this strange thing must happen. Unlike normal rainbows, the light is not bent but rather spread out. This is the result of all the light waves crossing over each other.
Nocturnal rainbow: It is done on nights when the moon is full. Light bends when it goes through night rain or fog. Most of the time, they are dim because the small luminaries don’t give off much light.
Countries with Unusual Rainbows
In the summer, there is usually a lot of high sunshine in some parts of the southern United States (USA). You can see red rainbows there.
At low elevations, rainbows that wrap around the horizon are less common. They are found in high places. You can see them in the US, Canada, Chile, Argentina, and Australia. A photographer in Scotland saw the white or albino rainbow. The supernumerary arch was also photographed in this same country at a different time.
It’s not an arc, it’s a Circle
Most people see an arc when they look at a rainbow, but it is actually a very beautiful and bright circle. If we are in an airplane or on a high mountain, we can see the whole horizon and see how it looks.
Also, this weather event is an optical illusion that doesn’t happen in a real place. It is a picture that our brain makes, and it has to do with how we see colors. I’m not sure if can catch it.
For this natural beauty to be seen, you have to stand behind the sun. We don’t see it very often in the middle of the day, because the sun has to shine through the water droplets at a temperature of 42 °C. A strange thing about the rainbow is that no two people can see it the same way because they see it from different angles.
The Rainbow and its History
Tradition says that the rainbow’s main job is to decorate the sky and remind people of something. In the time of Noah, the Bible says, God told the water to flood the earth to get rid of the evil that was making people’s lives hard. After that, God put a rainbow in the sky to show that there would never be another flood on Earth.
People have thought throughout history that this story from the Bible is just a myth or a symbol to explain how it first appeared. However, the atmosphere before the Flood did not have all the right conditions for it to form, which gives the story more truth and weight.
Scientists, like René Descartes and Isaac Newton, have studied and analyzed the phenomenon for hundreds of years. Modern science keeps looking into its different parts and how they work.
Professional photographers love to take pictures of it in the sky and in all of its different forms because they are so beautiful. In this case, we can talk about the very rare white or albino rainbow. A lot of painters have captured the beauty of this divine promise on canvas.
Record for Almost 9 Hours Long
A few years ago, scientists and people all over the world were amazed by a natural event that only lasts between 15 and 20 minutes. It happened in China (Taiwan City), where the longest rainbow lasted 8 hours and 52 minutes and could be in the Guinness Book of Records.
Experts in the field said that the length of time was because of a strange situation and a strange day of rain. Apparently, there is a seasonal monsoon in October and November, and the water drops in the air stay there for many hours. This is why he thought for a long time.
A representative from the University of Chinese Culture’s Department of Atmospheric Sciences said that about 10,000 photos were taken of the event, and that doesn’t include photos taken by the general public.
In 1994, England (in the city of Yorkshire) had the world’s longest rainbow, which lasted for 6 hours. It’s also in the Guinness Book of World Records.
Color Wheel and Rainbow
Isaac Newton, a mathematician, and physicist found something that helped explain colors. He said that light is made up of different parts. He did a test in a dark room that led him to this conclusion. He used white light, and when it went through a prism, it made all the colors of the rainbow appear.
We could say that it was the chromatic circle’s ancestor. Even though this was looked into in the past. Leonardo da Vinci, who knew a lot about many things, said that color was a part of the matter. He thought the target was the most important because it was through it that all the others could be seen. He chose yellow for the earth, green for the water, blue for the sky, red for the fire, and black for the darkness because there were no colors there.
It’s interesting to note that scientist Johann Wolfgang Goethe started studying how colors affect people’s minds in 1791. He said that yellow made him feel warm, and blue made him feel cool and relaxed. The color wheel also showed that it had a good side and a bad side.
On the good side were the different shades of red, from orange to yellow. On the bad side were the colors from green to blue-violet. On the good side were feelings of happiness, and on the bad side were feelings of sadness and being out of balance.
Plastic artists, graphic designers, architects, and other professionals and students in related fields need to know about the topic so they can use the color palette correctly in their work. In addition, they would understand that color is not just about art and creativity, but also about math. Hues are something you see with your eyes, and they have a big effect on how you feel.
Let’s make Our Own Bow
Many times, someone has yelled, “Look! A rainbow!” at the top of their lungs. To be honest, it is possible to see this natural event on a smaller scale. People can also make their own rainbows, which is great.
To make a replica of an artificial arch, you will need a mirror, a flashlight, a glass of water, and a piece of paper. You have to put the mirror inside the glass of water so that the flashlight (or the sun, if that’s what you’re using) can reflect in it and make the effect you want.
The piece of paper is then brought to the front. When refraction and reflection take place, you can see the different colors of natural light on the paper. There are many ways to make a rainbow at home. You just have to do some research.
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